Three major systems of in-text references are used by medical publishers: citation-sequence, citation-name, and name-year. This guide is based on the the citation-sequence system. In the citation-sequence system, numbers are used to refer to the list called “References” at the end of your paper. Number the reference and order them within the list according to the order in which they appear in the text. For example, if a reference by Sanders is the first one referred to in the text, then the Sanders reference is number one in the References list. Use the same number for all following in-text references to Sanders, number 1.
Studies show that 6.4% to 11% of all dental hygienists are diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome.1
Citing multiple references:
When multiple references occur, follow these guidelines:
Given the working frequency, duration, and force required during scaling and root planing, research indicates that power instruments are often easier to handle due to the instrument design.11,12
The most influential risk factor in diagnosing WMSD is the number of years that a dental hygienist has worked in a clinical practice as it is tied to the duration of strain on the muscles.13- 15
The NLM Style uses journal abbreviations in the citation rather than the full journal title. To find the journal abbreviation, use the NLM Catalog. For example, if you search the catalog for the Journal of the American Dental Association, you will find that the abbreviation is J Am Dent Assoc.
Example: Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, et al.
Example: Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide.
Example: New York: Oxford University Press;
Example (book): 2005.
Example (journal): 2005 Jan;
Example: J Res Med Sci.
Example: 322-64, 383-8.