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Foothill ACRL Framework for Information Literacy in Higher Education: Searching as Strategic Exploration

Overview

Searching for information is often nonlinear and iterative, requiring the evaluation of a range of information sources and the mental flexibility to pursue alternate avenues as new understanding develops.

Knowledge Practices

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities

  • determine the initial scope of the task required to meet their information needs;
  • identify interested parties, such as scholars, organizations, governments, and industries, who might produce information about a topic and then determine how to access that information;
  • utilize divergent (e.g., brainstorming) and convergent (e.g., selecting the best source) thinking when searching;
  • match information needs and search strategies to appropriate search tools;
  • design and refine needs and search strategies as necessary, based on search results;
  • understand how information systems (i.e., collections of recorded information) are organized in order to access relevant information;
  • use different types of searching language (e.g., controlled vocabulary, keywords, natural language) appropriately;
  • manage searching processes and results effectively.

Dispositions

Learners who are developing their information literate abilities

  • exhibit mental flexibility and creativity
  • understand that first attempts at searching do not always produce adequate results
  • realize that information sources vary greatly in content and format and have varying relevance and value, depending on the needs and nature of the search
  • seek guidance from experts, such as librarians, researchers, and professionals
  • recognize the value of browsing and other serendipitous methods of information gathering
  • persist in the face of search challenges, and know when they have enough information to complete the information task